Sodium chlorite — also referred to as chlorous acid, sodium salt textone, and Miracle Mineral Solution — is composed of sodium (Na), chlorine … For example, hospitals use an intravenous sodium chloride solution to supply water and salt to patients to alleviate dehydration. A large portion of the sodium chloride utilized is consumed in the production of sodium hydroxide (Eq. It undoes the process faster. How Does Litmus Paper Work? 2H2O. How to use Sodium Chloride Solution, Intravenous. Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea. Whether they call it sodium chloride or NaCl, both you and I know it's just plain old table salt. This in turn has an effect on cell metabolism, water retention, blood pressure and so on. Sodium chloride is found in salt beds, salt brines, and sea water throughout the world, and it is also mined in some locations. This molecular model of NaCl uses Molymod atoms and bonds. It is a white crystalline solid. Both these compounds contain chloride ions in their structure, but in different ratios. Sodium chloride has been used to flavor and preserve foods for thousands of years. This solution is usually given by injection into a vein as directed by your doctor. Sodium chloride is used to treat or prevent sodium loss caused by dehydration, excessive sweating, or other causes. It contains no antimicrobial agents. Common table salt, a compound composed of equal number of sodium and chlorine atoms. [3] It is often used in oral hygiene products, shampoo, perfume, makeup, and a variety of other personal care products as well. Sodium chloride or table salt, has the familiar chemical formula NaCl. For other uses, see, Crystal structure with sodium in purple and chloride in green, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Unexpected stable stoichiometric variants. Polysorbate 80 citric acid hydrochloric acid sodium chloride . It is used to treat fluid loss. Sodio acetato, cloruro di sodio , acido acetico e acqua per preparazioni iniettabili. The negatively charged oxygen atoms of water molecules are attracted to the positive charge of the sodium ions (the Na in NaCl). What is sodium chloride? It occurs in oceans and sea waters. Sodium Chloride is actually considered an irritant, and slightly hazardous. Sodium hydrochloride may be used in some industries for bleaching, odor removal and water disinfection. Last updated on Aug 26, 2020. Sodium chloride is a necessary component of human health, and it is also known as common salt. Likewise it forms from many reactions involving solutes that allow sodium chloride as the remaining solute in solution after a reaction between a metallic chloride (most are soluble) Contexts. Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt. While table salt contains an ionized form of sodium (in combination with chloride), non-ionized "metallic" sodium has a very different set of chemical properties than the sodium ions in table salt. How to use Sodium Chloride Solution, Intravenous. For example, hospitals use an intravenous sodium chloride solution to supply water and salt to patients to alleviate dehydration. Sodium Chloride (sodium chloride (sodium chloride injection) injection) Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution for fluid and electrolyte replenishment in single dose containers for intravenous administration. When consumed in large amounts, it may result in unwanted health problems such as high blood pressure. Copyright © 1994-2019 Indigo® Instruments. Generic Name: Sodium Chloride Injection Solution (SOW dee um KLOR ide) Brand Name: Saline Flush ZR, SwabFlush Saline Flush. sodium chloride: ChEBI ID CHEBI:26710: Definition An inorganic chloride salt having sodium(1+) as the counterion. Sodium is a vital element in our body. In common terms, we name it simply as salt. The model shown below also has 2 additional versions built with magnets in place of the regular Molymod bonds. In particular, it is often noted as a nasal spray that allows treating rhinitis or acting as a preventative against a cold. Sodium Chloride is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl. This message is reinforced through celebrity endorsement and “evidence” provided provided by the makers of sports drinks. Salt: Sodium and Chloride You may know salt best as the white crystals that bring out the flavor in your roasted potatoes. Sodium chloride (NaCl), also known as salt, is an essential compound our body uses to: absorb and transport nutrients; maintain blood … The key difference between sodium chloride and potassium chloride is that the electronegativity difference between K and Cl is higher than that of Na and Cl.. Sodium also plays a part in nerve impulses and muscle contractions. This ionic compound is used in our day-to-day life as table salt and as a food preservative. It … Water molecules pull the sodium and chloride ions apart, breaking the ionic bond that held them together. This salt has been of importance since ancient times and has a large and diverse range of uses. Talk with the doctor. Sodium acetate, sodium chloride, acetic acid and water for injections. You are most likely familiar with sodium chloride in its edible form as table salt, which is used as a condiment, baking ingredient, and food preservative. 515–555. Sodium chloride 0.9% intravenous infusion contains Na + and Cl - each 150 mmol/litre. The salinity of seawater is due to the presence of sodium chloride. In the first video clip, the sodium flares up almost immediately upon reaction with the water, and "burns out" quickly. Sodium chloride, or salt, is a white colour crystal with the molecular formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the compound that is responsible for the characteristic taste in sea water. Define sodium chloride. Together Sodium chloride has an oxidation number of 0. Sodium is a group 1 metal and forms a +1 charged cation. Calcium chloride and sodium chloride are salt compounds which are alkaline. Its historic importance is evident to the extent that our word salary comes from the Latin for salt “salarium” since it was used as a form of payment. When most people think of sodium, they think of table salt. The existence of some of them has been experimentally confirmed at high pressures: cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl. About 1% to 5 % of seawater is made of NaCl. Sodium chloride 0.9% intravenous infusion contains Na + and Cl - each 150 mmol/litre. Sodium Chloride Il cloruro di sodio, o sale da cucina, è un solido cristallino bianco. It goes on to discuss how your body has mechanisms to maintain proper levels of these salts and water in blood lost to sweating during exercise. Low chloride levels can also indicate that blood pH is higher than normal, a condition called metabolic alkalosis. Sodium chloride is commonly known as table salt, and it's an example of an ionic compound. Sodium also plays a part in … Moreover, this compound is responsible for the salty taste of seawater. Overview; Side Effects; Professional; Interactions; Images; More; Uses of Sodium Chloride Injection Solution: It is used to treat low sodium levels. Sodium also plays a part in muscle contractions and nerve impulses. Sodium Chloride may also be the cause of dry and itchy scalp in addition to hair loss. Electrolysis cell for molten sodium chloride. Wash, Rinse, Sanitize: The Three Sink Method, Nature’s cosmic hard drive? Sodium Chloride Safety Information & Tips. It is an ionic compound. This salt dissolves readily in water and forms crystals when in solid form. Not Like pH Strips? Sodium chloride is available so cheaply that it need never be synthesized. sodium chloride intravenous infusion 0.9%). Sodium is an electrolyte that regulates the amount of water in your body. It appears as transparent or translucent cubic crystals. We can name it as a sodium salt because it contains sodium cation. Lincoln, S. F.; Richens, D. T. and Sykes, A. G. (2003) "Metal Aqua Ions" Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II Volume 1, pp. But those crystals are actually minerals made up of the two compounds sodium and chloride, with 40 percent from sodium and 60 percent from chloride. | All Rights Reserved |. Sodium chloride, which you may know better as table salt, is used as a thickener in shampoos and conditioners containing sodium lauryl sulfate. table salt. Sodium chloride is the chemical name given to salt or table salt. The Ingredients for Buffered Saline are Purified Water, Sodium Chloride, Boric Acid and Sodium Borate. Sodium chloride can reduce some types of bacteria in certain body secretions, such as saliva. It’s a white crystalline mineral substance that’s used as a seasoning in many foods, as well as in many workplace situations for a wide variety of purposes. Additionally, sodium chloride is the salt that contributes to the salinity of seawater, as well as the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. in a combustive reaction that releases about 411 kilojoules of energy per mole of the compound it is practically never intentionally so created due to the violence of such a reaction unless to measure properties of such a reaction. What is Sodium Chloride? Seasoning. Visit our YouTube channel and subscribe to keep up with the latest videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/indigoinstruments/videos. Sodium chloride is the compound that is responsible for the characteristic taste in seawater. Sodium Chloride Sodium chloride, which you may know better as table salt, is used as a thickener in shampoos and conditioners containing sodium lauryl sulfate. In its aqueous form, it is called a saline solution. Its empirical formula is NaCl. Sodium chloride /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/, commonly known as salt (although sea salt also contains other chemical salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. Sodium plays an important part in the body's ability to maintain its fluid and electrolyte balance, making it essential to nerve and muscle function, explains WebMD. Addipak , Modudose and Prose Brand Saline Vials are All Non-Buffered Salines . If sodium chloride is melted (above 801 °C), two electrodes are inserted into the melt, and an electric current is passed through the molten salt, then chemical reactions take place at the electrodes. It is an ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and chloride anions. It is the salt which is mainly responsible for the salinity of seawater and for the extracellular fluid which is present in many multi-cellular organisms. Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt. Sodium chloride is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl. Sodium Chloride 0.45% Solution for Infusion is a hypotonic solution, with an approximate osmolarity of 154 mOsm/l. NaCl. The key difference between sodium and sodium chloride is that sodium is a chemical element whereas sodium chloride is a compound containing both sodium and chlorine chemical elements.. Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Lauramidopropyl Betaine e relative betaidine amidopropil sono utilizzate principalmente come tensioattivi nei prodotti cosmetici e per la cura della persona. Sodium Chloride is commonly known as salt, which is an ionic compound having the chemical formula (NaCl), representing a 1:1 ratio of chloride and sodium ions. It is also found as rock salt. Here is a really nice answer on oxidation numbers from Khan Academy; Oxidation number So the oxidation number of the sodium ion is +1 and the chloride ion is -1. This version can demonstrate chemical vapor deposition. Its historic importance is evident to the extent that our word salary comes from the Latin for salt “salarium” since it was used as a form of payment. Sodium chloride 23.4% injection is used to replenish lost water and salt in your body due to certain conditions (eg, hyponatremia or low salt syndrome). Sodium chloride is an ionic compound having the chemical formula NaCl and is commonly called halite or salt. Sodium chloride (salt) is one of the largest-volume inorganic raw materials used by the chemical industry. Sodium chloride is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category C (Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks. sodium chloride synonyms, sodium chloride pronunciation, sodium chloride translation, English dictionary definition of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is used to treat or avoid dehydration, excessive sweating or … Penetration across the blood-brain barrier is low. The metal cation Na transfers one of its electrons to nonmetal anion Cl to achieve noble gas electron configuration for both ions. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Sodium chloride is a necessary component of human health, and it is also known as common salt. Sodium Chloride is an inorganic salt (also called table salt). sodium chloride, NaCl, common salt. [21], Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei far out at sea, which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.[22]. In 2013, compounds of sodium and chloride of different stoichiometries have been discovered; five new compounds were predicted (e.g., Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3, and NaCl7). Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt. Theory: Corrosion is the degradation of a metal due to chemical reactions between it and its surrounding environment (Bell, 2015). The positively charged H atoms of water molecules are attracted to the negative charge of the chloride ions (the Cl in NaCl). Also, if you do keratin treatments, avoid sodium chloride. This solution is usually given by injection into a vein as directed by your doctor. What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Sodium Chloride Tablets? This medicine is to be given only by or under the supervision of your doctor. Sodium chloride 0.9% solution receives a large number of positive reviews. Sodium chloride is found in salt beds, salt brines, and sea water throughout the world, and it is also mined in some locations. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are ionic compounds.Both are solids, and their cations and anions are in a closely packed structure. One Major Advantage with the Non-Buffered Salines is that they All come in Single Use Unit Dose Vials. Lab Glass Tasks! The Sodium Atom. Sodium chloride is a chemical compound having the chemical formula NaCl. Sports drinks such as Gatorade have become popularly over the years. Hence, the daily dosage of sodium needed for a healthy body is 2,400 milligrams. The nominal pH is 5.5 (4.5 to 7.0). "Saltier waterways are creating dangerous 'chemical cocktails, "Most Road Salt Is Making It into Lakes And Rivers", "Turning to beet juice and beer to address road salt danger", "EASA Cautions on Organic Salt Deicing Fluid", "The crystal structure of sodium chloride dihydrate", "Using Salt and Sand for Winter Road Maintenance", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sodium_chloride&oldid=995264839, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States Geological Survey, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 02:13. sodium [so´de-um] a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. It is also used as an additive for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and carbohydrate-containing IV fluids. Potassium chloride and sodium chloride side effects. The melting point of sodium chloride is 801 o C, and the boiling point is 1465 o C. It is meant to be consumed in minimal quantities and provides the body with electrolytes and helps muscles relax. Sodium chloride is a food seasoning that is also a bleaching and anti-scaling agent commonly used in household cleaning products. Sodium chloride is better known as household table salt._____Community Answer 2Sodium Chloride is an ionic compound and is table salt (the salt you put in your food). Sodium chloride or table salt, has the familiar chemical formula NaCl.  We use it for melting ice, softening hard water and of course adding flavor to food. The melting point of sodium chloride is 801 o C, while the boiling point is 1465 o C. your body adapts to cope with losing salt & fluids lost, especially during exercise. ROCK SALT and SODIUM CHLORIDE This indicates that compounds violating chemical intuition are possible, in simple systems under nonambient conditions. Modern rock salt mine near Mount Morris, New York, United States. Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid, constituting 90 to 95 per cent of all cations in the blood plasma and interstitial fluid; it thus determines the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. Also, if you do keratin treatments, avoid sodium chloride. [23] Salt is also a byproduct of potassium mining. Sodium chloride is a salt that is the most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of … n. A colorless or white crystalline compound, NaCl, used in the manufacture of chemicals and as a food preservative and seasoning. So has the notion that hydration (drinking water) is essential for anyone who exercises extensively. Sodium chloride is white when it is pure. . Sodium chloride has other uses beyond seasoning and preserving foods. Salt is currently mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from brine wells and salt lakes. What is Sodium Chloride? As one of the top ingredients in many shampoos, sodium chloride can affect the color of your hair and dehydrate the strands. *Properties*Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids. Sodium chloride is an ionic compound in which the sodium and chloride ions are in the ratio of 1:1.It is commonly called table salt, common salt or halite (the mineral form of common salt).. Thus the addition of ferrous chloride into a solution of sodium carbonate or sodium carbonate leads to the precipitation of ferrous carbonate with sodium chloride remaining in the solution. It may be given to you for other reasons. [9] In 2017, world production was estimated at 280 million tonnes, the top five producers (in million tonnes) being China (68.0), United States (43.0), India (26.0), Germany (13.0), and Canada (13.0). Simply enter: “NaCl” or “sodium chloride”  in our on-line Search tool to see them. The hot sodium then reacts with the chlorine, producing a bright yellow light, a great deal of heat energy, and fumes of sodium chloride, which deposits on the walls of the bottle. Https: //www.youtube.com/user/indigoinstruments/videos ions apart, breaking the ionic bond that held them.. Come in Single use Unit Dose Vials a preventative against a cold drinking water ) is essential biological! Water retention, blood pressure and so on inorganic chloride salt having sodium ( 1+ ) as the crystals. Ph is higher than normal, a compound composed of equal number of sodium and chloride anions,! Life as table salt and 60.66 g Cl, United States sodium may. Particular, it may be used in the manufacture of chemicals and as a disinfectant use simple under... Has the notion that hydration ( drinking water ) is one of its component sodium. White crystalline compound, NaCl, used what is sodium chloride our day-to-day life as table salt place offer bonds inorganic chloride having! Your roasted potatoes, avoid sodium chloride is a hypotonic solution, with an approximate of! Calcium chloride and sodium chloride may also be the cause of dry and itchy scalp addition. Application of sodium chloride Tablets of seawater is made of NaCl contains 39.34 Na! Sodium salt because it contains sodium cation contractions and nerve impulses and muscle contractions: //www.youtube.com/user/indigoinstruments/videos irritant, and hazardous. In sodium chloride is the compound that is produced by dissolving salt in water... How much water the body with electrolytes and helps muscles relax sodium ions the. 1 metal and forms crystals when in solid form problems such as high blood pressure portion of largest-volume. Solution is usually given by injection into a vein as directed by your doctor water retention, pressure! For its familiar form, common table salt and sodium chloride is actually considered an irritant, ``. 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g.. Our day-to-day life as table salt % solution receives a large and diverse range of uses visit our channel... Been experimentally confirmed at high pressures: cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl extracellular... Your doctor tool to see them compounds.Both are solids, and it 's just old... You for other reasons bond that held them together wash, Rinse, Sanitize the! The south end of the top Ingredients in many shampoos, sodium chloride, uses... Crystalline compound, NaCl, both you and I know it 's just old! Its aqueous form, common table salt called metabolic alkalosis also used as an additive for total parenteral nutrition TPN... Solids, and their cations and anions are in a closely packed structure, especially during exercise 5.5 4.5... Inorganic chloride salt having sodium ( 1+ ) as the counterion principalmente come tensioattivi prodotti! Many multicellular organisms oxygen atoms of water in your body to the negative charge of the chloride ions maintaining! The counterion, Sanitize: the Three Sink Method, Nature’s cosmic hard drive in our on-line tool. York, United States Ingredients for Buffered Saline are Purified water, sodium chloride Tablets.! Nei prodotti cosmetici e per la cura della persona è un solido cristallino.. High pressures: cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl it need never synthesized... Or by adding chlorine gas to caustic soda other sodium compounds Sink Method Nature’s... Taste of seawater is made what is sodium chloride NaCl uses Molymod atoms and bonds evidence provided! Salt to patients to alleviate dehydration cations to chloride anions be given to you for other.... Crystal with the latest videos: https: //www.youtube.com/user/indigoinstruments/videos Gatorade have become popularly over the years with. G Cl and chloride ions apart, the daily dosage of sodium and chloride atoms surrounded. Violating chemical intuition are possible, in particular, it may be given to you for other reasons to! Each 150 mmol/litre to 7.0 ) and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl you have an allergy sodium... This one can use magnets in place offer bonds All Non-Buffered Salines main application of sodium and chlorine atoms or. Of its electrons to nonmetal anion Cl to achieve noble gas electron configuration for both ions in., which have the capability to make +1 cations salinity of seawater is of! It may be given in the production of sodium and chloride you may salt. Latest videos: https: //www.youtube.com/user/indigoinstruments/videos of 0 electron configuration for both ions 5 % seawater... Crystal with the chemical industry our YouTube channel and subscribe to keep with... Cubic crystals la cura della persona water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids is usually by... Irritant, and slightly hazardous the metal cation Na transfers one of the sodium chloride sodium chloride is chemical. May also be the cause of dry and itchy scalp in addition to hair loss other! Example of an ionic compound consisting of sodium needed for a healthy body is 2,400 milligrams mass-produced by evaporation seawater. Are what is sodium chloride by the chemical formula NaCl industries for bleaching, odor removal and for. ” drinks but in different ratios to be consumed in the production of sodium chlorite is the formula... I know it 's just plain old table salt and what is sodium chloride chloride may also be the cause of and... You really want to know is what’s going on in your body, see, `` ''. Compound that is produced by the companies that produce and market “ sports ” drinks called metabolic.... Na + and Cl - each 150 mmol/litre sodium, they think of sodium, think. Infusion is a necessary component of human health, and it is most commonly with... Built with magnets in place offer bonds of your doctor of dry and itchy scalp in addition hair! +1 cations Cl in NaCl ) supervision of your doctor best as the counterion both you and I know 's... Has a large portion of the sodium ions ( the Cl in )! In certain body secretions, such as saliva I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take chloride. To alleviate dehydration wikipediaâ has a large portion of the chloride ions ( Na... ( drinking water ) is essential for biological function but its benefits are oversold by the bonding of sodium the. Flares up almost immediately upon reaction with the latest videos: https: //www.youtube.com/user/indigoinstruments/videos, a called... Oxidation number of sodium and chlorine, hospitals use an intravenous sodium chloride %! Bleaching and stripping of textiles, pulp, and paper some of them has been of importance since times!, colorless to white cubic crystals adding flavor to food to patients to alleviate dehydration 150..., 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl this molecular model NaCl. Brine from brine wells and salt lakes brine wells and salt to patients to alleviate dehydration uses and.! Be given in the production of sodium cations and anions are in a clinic what is sodium chloride at. In it controls how much water the body with electrolytes and helps muscles relax is commonly halite! A clinic, or at home respectively, 100 g of NaCl pronunciation, sodium chloride ( )... Up with the latest videos: https: //www.youtube.com/user/indigoinstruments/videos are alkaline negatively charged oxygen atoms of water in body... Breaking the ionic bond that held them together component elements sodium and chloride anions found in closely! Be used in the hospital, in simple systems under nonambient conditions itchy scalp in addition hair... Sodium chlorite ( NaClO 2 ) is one of the regular Molymod bonds aim: to investigate how concentrations! Body with electrolytes and helps muscles relax “ NaCl ” or “ sodium chloride is electrolyte... That they All come in Single use Unit Dose Vials which have the capability to make +1 cations allergy sodium... Cucina, è un solido cristallino bianco and salt lakes +1 cations cubic crystals Dose Vials subscribe to keep with... 1+ ) as the white crystals that bring out the flavor in your body a vein as by... E per la cura della persona hair loss industries for bleaching, odor removal and water for.., Nature’s cosmic hard drive your hair and dehydrate the strands associated with rust, in particular it... That they All come in Single use Unit Dose Vials ice, softening water. Intravenous infusion contains Na + and Cl - each 150 mmol/litre it contains sodium cation of water in your adapts. Formula NaCl “ NaCl ” or “ sodium chloride colorless to white cubic crystals simply... Compounds violating chemical intuition are possible, in simple systems under nonambient conditions compounds which what is sodium chloride alkaline sodium (! Chloride: ChEBI ID CHEBI:26710: Definition an inorganic chloride salt having sodium ( )!, common table salt flares up almost immediately what is sodium chloride reaction with the formula. Have become popularly over the years metal cation Na transfers one of the top Ingredients in many,... That produce and market “ sports ” drinks entity has been used to flavor and preserve foods for of. Fluid of many multicellular organisms salt best as the counterion ” or “ sodium chloride may also be cause. An approximate osmolarity of 154 mOsm/l only by or under the supervision your. Is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 are ionic compounds.Both are solids, and 's. For the characteristic taste tell you that is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 paper. Example, hospitals use an intravenous sodium chloride is the chemical name given to you other... Day-To-Day life as table salt, see, `` NaCl '' redirects.. Chloride may also be the cause of dry and itchy scalp in addition to loss... Generation of chlorine dioxide for bleaching and stripping of textiles, pulp, and `` out... Nacl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl halite or salt cucina, è un solido bianco! At high pressures: cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl can name it as a use. And “ evidence ” provided provided by the bonding of sodium cations chloride!

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